2007-2009 Catalog
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Biological Science

Introduction | B.S. in Biological Science
Minor in Biotechnology | M.S. Biology
Biology Courses
Dept Homepage

DEPARTMENT CHAIR
Robert Koch

DIRECTOR, GRADUATE PROGRAM
Michael Horn, Jochen Schenk

DEPARTMENT OFFICE
McCarthy Hall 282

DEPARTMENT WEBSITE
http://biology.fullerton.edu

PROGRAMS OFFERED
Bachelor of Science in Biological Science with Concentrations in:
    Biodiversity, Ecology and Conservation Biology
    Cell and Developmental Biology
    Marine Biology
    Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
Minor in Biotechnology
Master of Science in Biology
Subject Matter Preparation Program for Single Subject Teaching Credential

FACULTY
Sandra Banack, Merri Lynn Casem, Esther Chen, Amybeth Cohen, Kathryn Dickson, David Drath, Doug Eernisse, David Fromson, William Hoese, Michael Horn, Anne Houtman, C. Eugene Jones, Judy Kandel, Robert Koch, Rodrigo Lois, Steven Murray, Nilay Patel, Nancy Pelaez, William Presch, Darren Sandquist, Jochen Schenk, Paul Stapp, Marcelo Tolmasky, Sean Walker, Fred Whipple, Danielle Zacherl

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Student with microscope

INTRODUCTION
Biology is the branch of science concerned with the study of life. The discipline is dynamic, diverse, and expanding with the integration of new molecular approaches, information technology and concerns for the environment. Through the study of biology students will: learn principles that govern the function of their own body and those of other organisms; explore how complex organisms develop from a single cell and how genes and the environment govern these events; and learn how plants capture the energy from the sun and, ultimately, sustain almost all life on Earth through intricate relationships with other organisms, including humans. In addition, in Southern California, proximity to a variety of employers ranging from biotechnology and biomedical companies to environmental consulting firms provides biology majors with diverse employment opportunities.

The department has designed a curriculum that builds on a core of biology and supporting courses for students who: (1) seek careers in industry and state or federal agencies, (2) wish to prepare for secondary school teaching, or (3) desire to enter graduate and professional schools. The curriculum beyond the basic core experience will be developed through individual advising. Students will be assigned a faculty adviser when they enter the University or they may choose a faculty member to serve as their adviser. Each semester, students are required to meet with their designated adviser in order to develop an appropriate program of study. After discussion with their adviser, students will elect upper-division courses in one of four concentrations that will satisfy their individual interests and professional goals.

Special Programs
In addition to the usual course offerings, the Department of Biological Science participates in the Center for Applied Biotechnology Studies, the Institute for Molecular Biology and Nutrition, and three consortial programs with other California State University campuses. These are CSUPERB (California State University Program for Education and Research in Biotechnology), the Ocean Studies Institute (through the Southern California Marine Institute) and the California Desert Studies Consortium at Soda Springs. Each of these centers is described in this catalog under “Research Centers.”

Pre-professional Information
The Health Professions Advising Office provides advising services to students wishing to enter the health professions. The services include counseling students to plan their academic programs, providing students with information about volunteer opportunities in the area of their interest, and providing assistance in the preparation of applications, including interviewing techniques.

Teaching Credential Information
The bachelor’s degree in biology may be effectively combined with requirements for the Subject Matter Preparation Program for the Single Subject Teaching Credential. Undergraduate students are encouraged to work with the Science Education Program in MH 527 and/or the Center for Careers in Teaching as early as possible in their academic careers to plan efficient course selections for general education, the major, and electives. Before applying to the Credential Program, undergraduate and postgraduate students should contact the Admission to Teacher Education office in the College of Education to obtain information on attending a required overview presentation and orientation.

Recommendations for Transfer Students
Students planning to transfer from another college or university should take biology, chemistry, mathematics, and/or physics courses that are equivalent to those required for the B.S. in Biological Science (refer to www.assist.org). Prospective transfer students should contact the Biology Department as soon as possible prior to transfer to select appropriate courses

Recommended Program in General Education
Because of high unit requirements for the B.S. in Biological Science, students are urged to consult with their adviser to design their general education program.

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UPPER-DIVISION BACCALAUREATE WRITING REQUIREMENT
To meet the upper-division baccalaureate writing requirement, students must (1) pass the English Writing Proficiency exam and (2) pass with a “C” (2.0) or better English 301 or Chemistry 340 or 6 units from Biology 411, 414, 417, 422, 426, 445, 446, 449, 468, 470 and 495.

Internships
Biology 495 Biological Internship provides students with the opportunity to participate in a practical work experience that integrates their interests with classroom studies.

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SCHOLARSHIPS IN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE
For additional information, please see the CSUF Financial Aid website: http://www.fullerton.edu/financialaid

Dr. and Mrs. Donald B. Bright Environmental Scholarship
To preserve the memory of Dr. Donald B. Bright, one or more scholarships per year are awarded to deserving undergraduate and graduate students of biology.

Judith A. Presch Desert Studies Scholarship
To preserve the memory of Judith A. Presch, two scholarships per year are awarded (one undergraduate and one graduate student) by the Desert Studies Consortium for work in the Mojave Desert.

Jerome Wilson Scholarship
To preserve the memory of Dr. Jerome Wilson, scholarships are awarded to deserving undergraduate or graduate students of biology.

Coppel Graduate Science Award
Established by Lynn and Claude Coppel for biology graduate students for their unrestricted use.

Rachel Carson Scholarship in Conservation Biology
To preserve the memory of Rachel Carson, a scholarship was created to encourage biology majors to pursue a career in Conservation Biology.

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BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE

A total of 120 units, including general education, 43 units in biology courses (20 units in the core and 23 units of upper-division electives constituting one of the concentrations described below), and 30 units of supporting courses in physical sciences and mathematics is required for completion of the B.S. in Biological Science. In addition, as a graduation requirement, students pursing the B.S. in Biological Science must complete an exit exam on biology in the spring semester of their senior year.

The supporting courses must include one year of general college chemistry including qualitative analysis with laboratory; one year of organic chemistry with laboratory; one semester of college calculus or introduction to experimental design and statistics for biologists; and one year of college physics with laboratory. Those students seeking careers in the health professions should speak to a health professions adviser about specific course recommendations. Students who wish to earn a doctoral degree should consider, in addition, a modern foreign language or advanced courses in computational sciences.

To qualify for a baccalaureate degree in Biological Science, students must have a 2.0 overall average in all biology courses and in all required supporting courses. No credit toward the major will be allowed for biology courses in which a grade of C-, D or F is obtained. Courses taken under the Credit/No Credit grade option may not be applied towards the major.

All full-time upper-division students are expected to attend the departmental seminars.

Core Requirements for the Major (20 units):
The core program in Biology provides an introduction to basic principles of biology and to the investigative nature of science. The curriculum uses Themes and Perspectives to connect and integrate major concepts, principles and basic facts. Three Themes run throughout the core curriculum:

    Evolution: Inherited changes in organisms accumulate over time.

    Unity and Diversity: Organisms possess common characteristics while exhibiting a wide range of     variability.

    Dynamics of Biological Systems: Living systems continually respond to their external and internal     environments by making changes necessary to sustain life.

Each theme will be presented from two perspectives:

    Human Impact: The interactions between the human and the biological world, and

    Scientific Process: The testing of new ideas, questions or hypotheses through observation and     experimentation.

Students should complete the following four core courses with a passing grade (“C” (2.0) or better) before they take most upper-division biology courses.

Biology 171 Evolution and Biodiversity (5)
Biology 172 Cellular Basis of Life (5)
Biology 273 Genetics and Molecular Biology (5)
Biology 274 Principles of Physiology and Ecology (5)


Upper-division courses (23 units):
The upper-division program is designed to provide students with depth in a chosen concentration. With approval from his or her departmental adviser, each student selects a program leading to a concentration in one of four areas (see below). The upper-division program requires 23 units of upper-division coursework, including at least 5 units of laboratory- or field-based activities, at least 6 units of 400-level biology courses, and at least 2 units of a specified capstone course.

Students with junior or senior standing will be permitted to enroll in Biology 480 Advanced Topics in Undergraduate Biology, Biology 495 Biological Internship, and Biology 499L Independent Laboratory Study; however, only a combined total 6 units of Biology 499L or 3 units from Biology 480 or 495 may be applied to the biology upper-division elective requirement.

No more than a combined total of 6 units of Biology 480 Advanced Topics in Undergraduate Biology (2 max), Biology 482 Capstone Studies in Biology (2 max), Biology 495 Biological Internship (3 max), Biology 498 Senior Thesis (2 max) and Biology 499L Independent Laboratory Study (6 max) shall be counted toward the 23 upper-division biology units required for the major, and no more than 3 of these units may count toward the requirement to complete at least 5 units of upper-division biology laboratory/field electives.


Concentration in Biodiversity,
Ecology, and Conservation Biology

The concentration consists of 23 units of upper-division biology electives, of which at least 5 units must be laboratory- or field-based activities, at least 6 units must be 400-level biology courses, and at least 2 units must be a capstone course. The 23 units of upper-division biology electives must also meet the following requirements:

Ecology Courses (6 units minimum)
Biology 314 Evolutionary Ecology (3)
AND at least one of the following:
Biology 419 Marine Ecology (3)
Biology 422 Coastal Ecology (4)
Biology 443 Plant Ecology (4)
Biology 449 Desert Ecology (4)
Biology 466 Behavioral Ecology (3)

Organismal/Systematics Courses (3 units minimum)
Biology 301 Problems in Environmental Biology (3)
Biology 340 Field Botany (3)
Biology 344 Survey of the Land Plants (3)
Biology 402 Computer Lab in Molecular Systematics (3)
Biology 441 Plant Taxonomy (4)
Biology 446 Marine Phycology (4)
Biology 461 Marine Invertebrate Biology (4)
Biology 467 Entomology (4)
Biology 474 Natural History of the Vertebrates (4)
Biology 475 Ichthyology (4)
Biology 476 Herpetology (4)
Biology 478 Mammalogy (4)
Biology 479 Ornithology (4)

Physiology/Development Courses (3 units minimum)
Biology 362 Mammalian Physiology (4)
Biology 405 Developmental Biology (3)
Biology 417 Advances in Cell Biology (3)
Biology 444 Plant Physiological Ecology (4)
Biology 445 Plant Cell Physiology (3)
Biology 468 Comparative Animal Physiology (4)

Free Upper-Division Biology Electives (0 – 9 units; number required to reach a total of 23 upper-division biology electives. Choose additional courses from above or select from the following:
Biology 304 Supervised Biology Lab Instruction (2)
Biology 317 Field Marine Biology (4)
Biology 404 Evolution (3)
Biology 436 Advanced Applied Statistics (4)
Biology 480 Advanced Topics in Undergraduate Biology (1 – 3)
Any upper-division biology elective from this or another concentration

Capstone courses (2 units minimum)
Biology 400 Seminar in Biology Education (2)
Biology 401 Biogeography (3)
Biology 450 Conservation Biology (3)
Biology 482 Capstone Studies in Biology (2)
Biology 495 Biological Internship (3)
Biology 498 Senior Thesis (2)
Biology 499L Independent Laboratory Study (1 – 3)


Concentration in Cell and Developmental Biology
The concentration consists of 23 units of upper-division biology electives, of which at least 5 units must be laboratory- or field-based activities, at least 6 units must be 400-level biology courses, and at least 2 units must be a capstone course. The 23 units of upper-division biology electives must also meet the following requirements:

Required Gateway Courses (7 units)
Biology 302 General Microbiology (4)
Biology 303 Intermediate Cell Biology (3)

Cell Biology Courses (10 units minimum)
Biology 362 Mammalian Physiology (3)
Biology 405 Developmental Biology (3)
Biology 417 Advances in Cell Biology (3)
Biology 418L Advances in Cell Biology Lab (2)
Biology 424 Immunology (4)
Biology 426 Virology (3)
Biology 428 Biology of Cancer (3)
Biology 470 Cellular Neurobiology (3)
No more than one of the following:
    Biology 309 Intermediate Molecular Biology (3)
    Biology 402 Computer Lab in Molecular Systematics (3)
    Biology 411 Medical Genetics and Systems Biology (3)
    Biology 412 Principles of Gene Manipulation (3)
    Biology 413 Advances in Molecular Genetics (3)
    Biology 414 Microbial Genetics (3)
    Biology 445 Plant Cell Physiology (3)
    Biology 448 Plant Molecular Biology (3)
    Chemistry 421 Biological Chemistry (3)

Free Upper Division Biology Electives (0 - 4 units; number required to reach a total of 23 upper-division biology electives). Choose additional courses from above or select from the following:
Biology 304 Supervised Biology Lab Instruction (2)
Biology 361 Human Anatomy (4)
Biology 480 Advanced Topics in Undergraduate Biology (1 – 3)
Any upper-division biology elective from this or another concentration

Capstone courses (2 units minimum)
Biology 400 Seminar in Biology Education (2)
Biology 426 Virology (3)
Biology 428 Biology of Cancer (3)
Biology 470 Cellular Neurobiology (3)
Biology 482 Capstone Studies in Biology (2)
Biology 495 Biological Internship (3)
Biology 498 Senior Thesis (2)
Biology 499L Independent Laboratory Study (1 – 3)

Concentration in Marine Biology
The concentration consists of 23 units of upper-division biology electives, of which at least 5 units must be laboratory- or field-based activities, at least 6 units must be 400-level biology courses, and at least 2 units must be a capstone course. The 23 units of upper-division biology electives must also meet the following requirements:

Ecology Courses (6 units)
Biology 314 Evolutionary Ecology (3)
AND at least one of the following:
Biology 419 Marine Ecology (3)
Biology 422 Coast Ecology (4)

Organismal/Systematics Courses (4 units minimum)
Biology 446 Marine Phycology (4)
Biology 461 Marine Invertebrate Biology (4)
Biology 475 Ichthyology (4)

Physiology/Development Courses (3 units minimum)
Biology 362 Mammalian Physiology (4)
Biology 405 Developmental Biology (3)
Biology 417 Advances in Cell Biology (3)
Biology 444 Plant Physiological Ecology (4)
Biology 445 Plant Cell Physiology (3)
Biology 468 Comparative Animal Physiology (4)

Free Upper-Division Biology Electives (0 - 8 units; number required to reach a total of 23 upper-division biology electives). Choose additional courses from above or from the following:
Biology 304 Supervised Biology Lab Instruction (2)
Biology 317 Field Marine Biology (4)
Biology 404 Evolution (3)
Biology 419L Marine Ecology Laboratory (1)
Biology 436 Advanced Applied Statistics (4)
Biology 480 Advanced Topics in Undergraduate Biology (1 – 3)
Any upper-division biology elective from this or another concentration

Capstone Courses (2 units minimum)
Biology 400 Seminar in Biology Education (2)
Biology 401 Biogeography (3)
Biology 450 Conservation Biology (3)
Biology 482 Capstone Studies in Biology (2)
Biology 495 Biological Internship (3)
Biology 498 Senior Thesis (2)
Biology 499L Independent Laboratory Study (1 – 3)

Concentration in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
The concentration consists of 23 units of upper-division biology electives, of which at least 5 units must be laboratory- or field-based activities, at least 6 units must be 400-level biology courses, and at least 2 units must be a capstone course. The 23 units of upper-division biology electives must also meet the following requirements:

Required Gateway Courses (6 or 7 units)
Biology 309 Intermediate Molecular Biology (3)
    AND one or more of the following:
Biology 302 General Microbiology (4)
Chemistry 421 Biological Chemistry (3)
OR Chemistry 423A General Biochemistry (3)

Molecular Biology Courses (13 units minimum)
Biology 402 Computer Lab in Molecular Systematics (3)
Biology 405 Developmental Biology (3)
Biology 411 Medical Genetics and Systems Biology (3)
Biology 412 Principles of Gene Manipulation (3)
Biology 413 Advances in Molecular Genetics (3)
Biology 414 Microbial Genetics (3)
Biology 445 Plant Cell Physiology (3)
Biology 448 Plant Molecular Biology (3)
Biology 472A Advances in Biotechnology Lab (3)
Biology 472B Advances in Biotechnology Lab (3)
Biology 473 Bioinformatics (3)
No more than 5 units of the following:
   Biology 362 Mammalian Physiology (4)
   Biology 417 Advances in Cell Biology (3)
   Biology 418L Advances in Cell Biology Lab (1)
   Biology 424 Immunology (4)
   Biology 426 Virology (3)
   Biology 428 Biology of Cancer (3)
   Biology 444 Plant Physiological Ecology (4)
   Biology 470 Cellular Neurobiology (3)
   Biology 477 Advances in Biotechnology (3)
   Biology 499L Independent Lab Study (1-3)

Free Upper-Division Biology Electives (0-2 units; number required to reach a total of 23 upper-division biology electives. Choose additional courses from above or from the following:
Biology 304 Supervised Biology Lab Instruction (2)
Biology 480 Advanced Topics in Undergraduate Biology (1-3)
Any upper-division biology elective from this or another concentration

Capstone courses (2 units minimum)
Biology 400 Seminar in Biology Education (2)
Biology 472A Advances in Biotechnology Lab (3)
Biology 472B Advances in Biotechnology Lab (3)
Biology 482 Capstone Studies in Biology (2)
Biology 495 Biological Internship (3)
Biology 498 Senior Thesis (2)
Biology 499L Independent Laboratory Study (1-3)

Supporting Course Requirements for the Major (29-30 units)
Chem 120A,B General Chemistry (10)
Chem 301A,B Organic Chemistry (6)
Chem 302 or Chem 302A,B Organic Chemistry Laboratory (2)
Physics 211, 211L Elementary Physics and Laboratory (4)
Physics 212, 212L Elementary Physics and Laboratory (4)
Math 130A Short Course in Calculus (4),
    OR Math 150A Calculus (4),
    OR Math 337 Intro to Experimental Design and Statistics in the Laboratory Sciences (3)

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MINOR IN BIOTECHNOLOGY
The biotechnology minor is appropriate for students majoring in biological science or biochemistry and interested in gaining employment in nearly any area of the growing medical and agricultural biotechnology industries, working in academic research laboratories, or pursuing postgraduate degrees in basic molecular biology or biochemistry.

The biotechnology minor requires a minimum of 31 acceptable units of chemistry and biology. These courses must be completed with a minimal overall grade-point average of 2.0 and include 12 units unique to the minor that are not used to meet requirements for the biological science or biochemistry major.

Required Core Courses (28 units)
Biology 273 Genetics and Molecular Biology (5)
Biology 309 Intermediate Molecular Biology (3)
OR Chem 421 Biological Chemistry (3)
Chem 301A,B Organic Chemistry (6)
Chem 302 or Chem 302A,B Organic Chemistry Laboratory (2)
Biology 412 Principles of Gene Manipulation (3)
Biol/Chem 472A,B Advances in Biotechnology Laboratory (6)
Chem/Biol 477 Advances in Biotechnology (3)

Supporting Courses (3-4 units)
Students must complete one of the following courses:
Biology 309 Intermediate Molecular Biology (3)
Biology 413 Advances in Molecular Genetics (3)
Biology 424 Immunology (4)
Chem 421 Biological Chemistry (3)
Chem 423A General Biochemistry (3)
Chem 423B General Biochemistry (3)

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MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY
The M.S. in Biology is a thesis-based degree for which the student completes original, independent research in one of the following areas: Biodiversity, Ecology & Conservation Biology, Cell & Developmental Biology, Marine Biology, Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, or Biology Pedagogy Research. The program offers specialized educational opportunities and training in preparation for (a) advanced graduate work toward a doctoral degree in the biological sciences or science education, (b) teaching at the secondary and community college levels, (c) participation in research programs and employment as a research technician, (d) participation in various field service and conservation positions within local, state and national governments, (e) entering the field of public-health service, or (f) technological work in the health sciences.

Admission Requirements
An applicant must meet the university requirements for admission, which include a baccalaureate from an accredited institution and a grade-point average of at least 2.5 in the last 60 semester units attempted (see section of this catalog on Graduate Admissions for complete statement and procedures). Students must make two applications, one to the university and another to the department. In addition to the university requirements for admission, acceptance into this program is contingent upon the following: (1) a B.A. or B.S. in Biological Science or related area at an accredited institution with a grade-point average of 3.0 in biology courses and a GPA of 2.5 in the related courses in mathematics, chemistry and physics; (2) submission of scores on one of the following: (a) Graduate Record Examination General Test, (b) Medical College Admission Test, or (c) Dental Admission Test; (3) completion of the departmental application; (4) submission of two letters of recommendation; and (5) acceptance by a thesis adviser.

Students with deficiencies may be considered for conditional acceptance into the program. For conditionally accepted students, the specific conditions and a deadline for their completion are determined at the time of admission; continuation in the M.S. program is dependent upon completion of the admission conditions by the specified deadline.

Application Deadlines
The deadlines for completing online applications are March 1st for the fall semester and October 1st for the spring semester (see http://www.csumentor.edu). Mailed applications need to be postmarked by the same deadlines. However, deadlines may be changed based upon enrollment projections. Check the university graduate studies website for current information http://www.fullerton.edu/graduate

Classified Standing
Students should achieve classified graduate standing as soon as they are eligible, since no more than nine units of graduate work taken before classification can be included on the study plan (see below) for the degree. A student who meets the admission requirements may apply for classified standing, which requires the development of a study plan approved by the thesis adviser, thesis committee, director of the departmental graduate program and dean of graduate studies. Students admitted with conditional acceptance must meet conditions (see above) before being considered for classified standing.

Advancement to Candidacy
Advancement to candidacy is attained by requesting a graduation check and receiving subsequent approval of the departmental graduate program director on the Grad Check Review Form, mailed by the Graduate Studies Office.

Study Plan
Students must meet the Graduate Level Writing Requirement, which is described in this catalog under “Graduate Regulations.” Biology M.S. candidates will meet this requirement by taking Biology 500A,B Professional Aspects of Biology.

A study plan includes 30 units of adviser-approved graduate work; at least one-half of the total units must be at the 500-level. All study plans must include Biology 599 Independent Graduate Research, Biology 500A,B Professional Aspects of Biology, Biology 598 Thesis, and at least two graduate seminars.

A thesis acceptable to the adviser and committee, covering a research problem, as well as a final oral examination and a public presentation on the thesis research, are required to complete the degree program.

Supervising the work of graduate students requires the personal attention of advisers. To insure that advisers are available for new graduate students, a graduate student is expected to complete the requirements for graduation within three years after classification.

For more detailed information or advisement, students should contact the Biological Science Department, or the Graduate Program Director of the Biological Science Department (biogradadv@fullerton.edu).

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BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE COURSES

Courses are designated as BIOL in the class schedule. Unless otherwise designated, prerequisites may be waived by the instructor of the course if the instructor is satisfied that the student is qualified for the course.

BIOL 101    Elements of Biology

Description: Underlying principles governing life forms, processes and interactions. Elements of biology and reasoning skills for understanding scientific issues on personal, societal, and global levels. For the non-science major. No credit toward biological science major.
Units: (3)

BIOL 101H    Elements of Biology (Honors)

Description: Corequisite: Biology 101LH (Honors). Students must meet honors qualifications. Living organisms and characteristics of the natural environment. Emphasis on the scientific reasoning leading to our current understanding of living systems. For the non-science major.
Units: (3)

BIOL 101L    Elements of Biology Laboratory

Description: Prerequisite or corequisite: Biology 101. Laboratory experiments demonstrating the principles presented in the lecture course. Scientific inquiry, cell structure and function, physiology, genetics, biodiversity, evolution and ecology. For the non-science major. (3 hours laboratory or fieldwork; weekend field trips may be required).
Units: (1)

BIOL 101LH    Elements of Biology Laboratory (Honors)

Description: Corequisite: Biology 101H (Honors). Students must meet honors qualifications. Laboratory experiments and demonstrations which provide insight into scientific reasoning and the basis of our current understanding of living systems. For the non-science major. (3 hours laboratory or fieldwork; field trips may be required)
Units: (1)

BIOL 102    Biology for Future Teachers

Description: Designed especially for the prospective teacher, this activity-based course will examine biological concepts in real-world contexts such as the medical examination, genes and evolution, and the environment. Lecture and laboratory form a single unified learning experience. No credit toward biological science major. (6 hours activity)
Units: (3)

BIOL 105    Survey of the Molecules of Life

Description: An introduction to the biochemical processes of life, including metabolism, development, and disease. Recent scientific advances are discussed with emphasis placed on AIDS, cancer, diabetes, and cloning. Scientific methods and ethical issues in scientific research are also examined. For the non-science major. (Same as Chemistry 105)
Units: (3)

BIOL 171    Evolution and Biodiversity

Description: Introduction to scientific processes and methods of biology. Explorations of unifying principles of evolution processes leading to biodiversity, and principles of conservation biology. (Primarily for majors in the Colleges of Natural Science/Mathematics and Engineering/Computer Science; 3 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory/fieldwork; weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (5)

BIOL 172    Cellular Basis of Life

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 171. Exploration of the structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells including: evolutionary relationships; cell membranes; compartmentation; signaling and metabolic pathways; cellular reproduction; cell differentiation, multicellularity and development. (For majors in Colleges of Natural Science/Mathematics and Engineering/Computer Science; 3 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory)
Units: (5)

BIOL 202    Microbiology for Nursing and Allied Health Professionals

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 101; co-requisite: Chemistry 200. An introduction to bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses with emphasis on pathogenic agents and how they are controlled by host defenses and human intervention. Laboratory will provide practice with basic microbiological skills. No credit toward biological science major. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory)
Units: (4)

BIOL 210    Human Anatomy and Physiology

Description: Introductory anatomy and physiological concepts for Kinesiology and Health Science majors. Gross and micro-level human anatomy as well as the structure and function of selected systems. Preparation for Kinesiology 260, 300, 348, 371, and the major in Health Science. No credit toward biological science major. (Same as Kinesiology 210)
Units: (3)

BIOL 220A    Integrated Human Anatomy and Physiology

Description: (Same as Kinesiology 220A)
Units: (4)

BIOL 220B    Integrated Human Anatomy and Physiology

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 101, Kinesiology/Biology 220A; co-requisite: Chemistry 200. Second semester of integrated concepts in human anatomy and physiology for nursing, allied health, and kinesiology majors.
Units: (4)

BIOL 273    Genetics and Molecular Biology

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 172. Corequisite: Completion or enrollment in Chemistry 120A. Explorations of the underlying principles of inheritance, structure and functions of nucleic acids, regulation of gene expression, the mechanisms by which populations evolve, and the impact of biotechnology on society. (3 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory)
Units: (5)

BIOL 274    Principles of Physiology and Ecology

Description: Prerequisites: Biology 273 and Chemistry 120A; Mathematics 130, 150A, or 337 suggested. Principles of organisms’ interactions with their environments; physiological and evolutionary mechanisms of change in response to environmental factors; population and community ecology; energy and material flow through ecosystems. (3 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory/fieldwork; weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (5)

BIOL 299L    Directed Laboratory Study

Description: Prerequisites: Biology 171 and 172 and consent of instructor. Research in biology under the supervision of a biology faculty member. Intended for students (especially lower-division) who may not have completed sufficient course work to allow them to work independently, but who are eager for laboratory research experience. May be repeated for university credit, but units do not count toward major. (3 hours laboratory per unit)
Units: (1-3)

BIOL 300    Environmental Biology

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 101 or equivalent. Biological consequences of human intervention in ecosystems: Endangered and threatened species, pollution impact on organisms, pest control, population dynamics, genetic engineering of agricultural species, management of natural areas and urban ecosystem dynamics. No credit toward biological science major.
Units: (3)

BIOL 301    Problems in Environmental Biology

Description: Prerequisite: admission into the Southern California Ecosystems Research Program in environmental biology. Showcases environmental problems in Southern California ecosystems. Students investigate effects of human activities on desert, foothill, and wetland ecosystems. Course offered as an intensive four-week summer field experience. (Equivalent to 1 hour lecture, 6 hours laboratory/fieldwork during a normal semester)
Units: (3)

BIOL 302    General Microbiology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core and Chemistry 120B. Introduction to structure and function of bacteria and viruses including beneficial and detrimental activities and interactions with other organisms. Laboratory provides investigations with microscopy, culture, physiology and genetics of microbes. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory)
Units: (4)

BIOL 303    Intermediate Cell Biology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. Corequisite: Chemistry 301A. Evidence-based examination of cells in action, roles of information, matter and energy flow as driving forces for compartmentation, protein sorting, metabolic and signaling pathways, motility and adhesion; examples taken from developmental, neural and cancer processes.
Units: (3)

BIOL 304    Supervised Biology Laboratory Instruction

Description: Prerequisites: Biology 172, 273 or 274 and permission of instructor For students interested in assisting in lower division biology lab that they have completed. Students will gain practical experience in laboratory teaching and will be introduced to major topics in biology education.
Units: (2)

BIOL 305    Human Heredity and Development

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 101 or equivalent. Principles of human heredity and embryology relating to human development. Mendelian genetics, single gene effects, genetics, prenatal diagnosis, and human embryology. No credit toward biological science major.
Units: (3)

BIOL 306    Biology of Aging

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 101 or equivalent. Biological changes in cells, tissues, organs and the whole body associated with aging. Theories of aging will be discussed with primary emphasis on mammals. No credit toward biological science major.
Units: (3)

BIOL 309    Intermediate Molecular Biology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. Corequisite: Chemistry 301A. Molecular and genetic basis of cellular functions. The role of gene expression and protein function in metabolism, physiology, growth, development. Introduction to recombinant DNA and its uses, and to critical analysis of primary literature.
Units: (3)

BIOL 310    Human Physiology

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 101 or equivalent. Human physiological systems and their relationship to human function for non-biology majors and students in Kinesiology and Health Sciences. No credit for biological science major.
Units: (3)

BIOL 310L    Human Physiology Laboratory

Description: Prerequisite: completion of General Education Category III.A; Biology 310 is a co- or pre-requisite. Investigation of human physiology; the cellular to organ system level of muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory and renal systems; the neural and endocrine control of these systems.
Units: (3)

BIOL 311    Nutrition and Disease

Description: (Same as Chemistry 311)
Units: (3)

BIOL 314    Evolutionary Ecology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. The integration of evolutionary and ecological principles. Includes the nature and causes of variation, population genetics, life histories, adaptation, evolution of behavior, ecology of interspecific interactions, paleoecology and life through time, and the interplay between ecology and phylogeny. (3 hours lecture)
Units: (3)

BIOL 317    Field Marine Biology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. Field biology and natural history of local marine plants and animals. Identification of common species and factors determining their distributions and abundance in marine habitats. Effects of human activities on marine organisms. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours lab or fieldwork; weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (4)

BIOL 318    Wildlife Conservation

Description: Prerequisite: completion of General Education Category III.A.2.c. Causes and consequences of loss of biological diversity, with an emphasis on wildlife populations and science-based conservation. Threatened and endangered species/ecosystems, ecosystem management, habitat restoration, captive species reintroductions and conservation legislation.
Units: (3)

BIOL 319    Marine Biology

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 101 or equivalent. Survey of marine plants and animals in their habitats. No credit toward biological science major.
Units: (3)

BIOL 322    Human Behavioral Ecology

Description: (Same as Anthropology 322)
Units: (3)

BIOL 330    Ecology of American Indians

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 101 or equivalent. Interrelationships of native peoples of the Americas with the local flora and fauna and the natural environment. Roles of American Indians in predator-prey interactions, ecological hierarchy, nutrient cycling, successional change and resource management. No credit toward biological science major.
Units: (3)

BIOL 340    Field Botany

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. The native flora of southern California. Identification, natural history and factors that determine the distribution of species. (1 hour lecture, 6 hours laboratory or fieldwork; weekend field trips are required)
Units: (3)

BIOL 344    Survey of the Land Plants

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. A survey of the anatomical and morphological characteristics of the land plants as they relate to the evolutionary development and ecological strategies of these plants. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory)
Units: (4)

BIOL 352    Plants and Life

Description: Prerequisite: one semester of college biology. The importance of plants in our lives, including such things as plant domestication and the origin of agriculture. Why plants are fascinating organisms. No credit toward biological science major.
Units: (3)

BIOL 360    Biology of Human Sexuality

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 101 or equivalent. The biology of the human reproductive system, sexual differentiation, anatomy and physiology, sexual behaviors, procreation, contraception and sexually transmitted disease. No credit toward biological science major.
Units: (3)

BIOL 361    Human Anatomy

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. A systems approach to the structure and function of the human body. For biology majors and related health sciences. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory)
Units: (4)

BIOL 362    Mammalian Physiology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core and Chemistry 120B. The fundamental mechanisms of mammalian and human physiology. Integration of cellular and organ system functions with emphasis on regulatory processes. For biology majors and related health sciences. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory).
Units: (4)

BIOL 400    Seminar in Biology Education

Description: Prerequisites: one of the following: Biology 302, 303, 309, 314 and permission of instructor. For students interested in biology education/science education. Students discuss major topics in biology education and conduct research. (2 hours lecture/discussion)
Units: (2)

BIOL 401    Biogeography

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. Evolutionary patterns and mechanisms of the distribution of plants and animals in the major habitats of the world. Current concepts and theories.
Units: (3)

BIOL 402    Computer Lab in Molecular Systematics

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. To gain practical and theoretical experience with software-based methods in molecular systematics, with emphasis on Internet resources for molecular biologists, acquisition of gene protein sequences, multiple sequence alignment, PCR primer design, phylogenetic analysis, and controversies in the field. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory)
Units: (3)

BIOL 404    Evolution

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. The history of evolutionary thought; origin of universe, earth and life; geological and paleontological history of the earth; evidence derived from comparative anatomy, embryology, genetics, zoogeography; mechanisms of evolution.
Units: (3)

BIOL 405    Developmental Biology

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 303 or 309. Molecular and cellular processes in embryonic development encompassing mechanisms of fertilization, cell and tissue interactions, morphogenesis, organogenesis, and the regulation of gene expression.
Units: (3)

BIOL 409    Teaching Evolution: Online Course for Teachers

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology core, General Education Category III.A. and instructor permission. Introduces concepts of evolution, methods of teaching evolution, information competence and ethics. Technology employed for communication, collaboration, investigation and organization. If both Biology 404 and 409 are taken, only Biology 404 counts for biological science major.
Units: (3)

BIOL 411    Medical Genetics and Systems Biology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core and one of the following: Biology 302, 309, Chemistry 421 or 423A. Advances in genetics, genomics, proteomics, and systems biology. Implications for the pharmaceutical industry, the clinic, and for genetic counseling. Uses of biological arrays in diagnosing and treating diseases.
Units: (3)

BIOL 412    Principles of Gene Manipulation

Description: Prerequisites: Biology 309 and Chemistry 301B. Current approaches to and applications of recombinant DNA technology. Principles behind construction of recombinant molecules including vectors and enzymes, introduction into organisms, selection, expression of cloned genes, and impact of research on society.
Units: (3)

BIOL 413    Advances in Molecular Genetics

Description: Prerequisites: Biology 309 and Chemistry 301A,B. The function of genetic material and informational macromolecules. Extensive analysis of recent scientific articles in molecular genetics illustrating mutagenesis, protein synthesis, protein structure and function, biogenesis of RNA molecules, regulation of gene expression and their relationship to important biological processes.
Units: (3)

BIOL 414    Microbial Genetics

Description: Prerequisite: one of the following: Biology 302, 309, Chemistry 421, or 423A. A perspective of genetics of microbial systems including background information, experimental methods, data interpretation, genetic analysis and applications to biotechnology.
Units: (3)

BIOL 417    Advances in Cell Biology

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 303. Current topics in the cell biology of cell motility, cell multiplication and regulation, membranes and permeability, cell signaling, cell-to-cell contact and extracellular matrix, and cell differentiation using current journal articles.
Units: (3)

BIOL 418L    Advances in Cell Biology Lab

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 303. Use of current techniques like fluorescence microscopy, immunolabeling, ion-sensitive dye ratiometry, image processing, and 2-D and 3-D reconstruction to study problems in cell biology, cellular developmental biology, and cellular neurobiology. (6 hours laboratory)
Units: (2)

BIOL 419    Marine Ecology

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 314. Ecology of planktonic, nektonic and benthic organisms; their communities and environments.
Units: (3)

BIOL 419L    Marine Ecology Laboratory

Description: Corequisite: Biology 419. Field and laboratory studies of planktonic, nektonic and benthic communities. (3 hours laboratory or field work; weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (1)

BIOL 422    Coastal Ecology

Description: Prerequisites: Biology 274 and 314. Ecology or coastal populations and communities with emphasis on rocky intertidal or other marine or ocean-influenced habitats. Field and laboratory experiments and studies or ecological processes affecting species distributions and abundances. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory/field work; weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (4)

BIOL 424    Immunology

Description: Prerequisites: Biology 302, and 303 or 309. The molecular, cellular and organismic nature of the immune process. Inflammation, phagocytosis, antigens, immunoglobulins and cell-mediated immune phenomena. Modern immunology techniques. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory)
Units: (4)

BIOL 426    Virology

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 303 or 309. Viral structure and replication and host-virus interactions in the viral replication process, with emphasis on animal and bacterial virus systems.
Units: (3)

BIOL 428    Biology of Cancer

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 303 or 309 or 314. Biology 424 is recommended. The cancer problem as a dilemma of biology. Clinical and epidemiological aspects. Current research.
Units: (3)

BIOL 433    Microbial Problems in Foods

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 302 or equivalent. Food spoilage, food intoxication and food-borne diseases caused by microbes in food processing. The microbes involved, sources of contamination, and methods used in detection and prevention of problems. (1 hour lecture, 3 hours laboratory or fieldwork; weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (2)

BIOL 436    Advanced Applied Statistics

Description: Prerequisites: Math 337 or 338; junior or senior standing. Linear models, including mixed models, applied to experimental and field data from current research projects. Poisson and logistic regression. Emphasis on model fitting and checking; use of permutation tests as needed. Presentation of results suitable for publication. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory) (Same as Math 436)
Units: (4)

BIOL 438    Public Health Microbiology

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 302. The control and epidemiology of infectious diseases of public health importance, water and sewage microbiology. Control of current problems. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory)
Units: (4)

BIOL 441    Plant Taxonomy

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. Classification and evolution of vascular plants; emphasis on the flowering plants. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory or fieldwork; weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (4)

BIOL 442    Pollination Biology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. Pollination in the plant kingdom. Floral cues, pollination syndromes, pollinator behavior, chemical and physical characteristics of pollination, energetics, gene flow, phenology, and ecological aspects of pollination. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory or fieldwork)
Units: (3)

BIOL 443    Plant Ecology

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 314. Community and population ecology of terrestrial plants. Environmental factors and plant distribution with emphasis on California vegetation. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory or fieldwork; weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (4)

BIOL 444    Plant Physiological Ecology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. Biology 445 is recommended. Fundamental mechanisms of plant physiological responses to the environment with primary emphasis on whole plants and ecosystems. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory; weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (4)

BIOL 445    Plant Cell Physiology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core plus one of the following: Biology 302, 309, 314, Chemistry 421, or 423A. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of behavior, growth, transport processes, and environmental responses in vascular plants. Plant cell development, nutrition, respiration, photosynthesis, hormones, photoperiodism, and stress biology.
Units: (3)

BIOL 446    Marine Phycology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. Biological aspects of marine algae; comparative development, morphology, taxonomy, physiology, and ecology. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory or fieldwork; weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (4)

BIOL 447    Ethnobotany

Description: Prerequisites: completion of Biology 171, 172, 273, 274 and 314. The study of how people interact with plants and the environment, including such things as western medicinal plant use, traditional medicine and dentistry, exotic foods and conservation. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory; weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (4)

BIOL 448    Plant Molecular Biology

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 302 or 303 or 309 or Chemistry 421 or 423A. Genetic mechanisms in vascular plants controlling metabolism, growth, development, and responses to biotic/abiotic environmental stresses. Emphasis on molecular regulation of gene expression and transduction of internal and external signals.
Units: (3)

BIOL 449    Desert Ecology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core; Biology 314. Investigation of adaptations, distributions and interactions of desert plants, animals and microbes, including the influences of environmental factors. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory of fieldwork; weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (4)

BIOL 450    Conservation Biology

Description: Prerequisite: Biology 314 or consent of instructor. Current topics involving theory, concepts and techniques in the conservation of biological diversity.
Units: (3)

BIOL 451    Advanced Human Evolution

Description: (Same as Anthro 451)
Units: (3)

BIOL 453    Life Science Concepts

Description: Prerequisites: completion of general education requirements or consent of instructor. Biological principles using science processes appropriate for elementary teachers. No credit for Biological Science major. (2 hours lecture, 2 hours activity)
Units: (3)

BIOL 461    Marine Invertebrate Biology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. Evolution, classification, phylogeny, morphological and physiological adaptations of marine invertebrate animals. Dissection, identification and observation of extant animals. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory or fieldwork; weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (4)

BIOL 462    General Parasitology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. Survey of various animal parasites with an emphasis on the morphology, physiology, and genetics of human protozoans and helminthes. Other topics will include vectors and common parasites of domestic animals. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab per week)
Units: (4)

BIOL 466    Behavioral Ecology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. Current problems in the evolution of animal behavior; the origin and maintenance of social systems and behavioral interactions of animals.
Units: (3)

BIOL 467    Entomology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. Anatomy, physiology, evolution and biology of insects and other terrestrial arthropods. Dissection, collection, identification and observation of living arthropods. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory or fieldwork; weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (4)

BIOL 468    Comparative Animal Physiology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core and Chemistry 120B. Comparative study of physiological and biochemical processes among representative animals. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory, weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (4)

BIOL 470    Cellular Neurobiology

Description: Prerequisites: Biology 303 or 309, and 362. Processes of cell communication, particularly in nervous systems. Molecular biology of neurons, model sensory and motor systems, and cellular basis for behavior.
Units: (3)

BIOL 472A    Advances in Biotechnology Laboratory

Description: (Same as Chemistry 472A)
Units: (3)

BIOL 472B    Advances in Biotechnology Laboratory

Description: Prerequisite: Biology/Chemistry 472A. Second semester exploring biotechnology techniques for gene product analysis: DNA sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, predicting amino acid changes, protein overproduction, enzyme function assays, protein identification/preparation by gel techniques, immunoblotting. (1 hour discussion, 6 hours laboratory) (Same as Chemistry 472B)
Units: (3)

BIOL 473    Bioinformatics

Description: Prerequisites: Chemistry 301B, 302 and Biology 309, Biology 314 or Chemistry 421; or consent of instructor. Provides a research-based, problem-solving experience using the tools and algorithms of molecular and computational biology to analyze genetic and protein sequences retrieved from appropriate databases. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours computer laboratory) (Same as Chemistry 473)
Units: (3)

BIOL 474    Natural History of the Vertebrates

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. Natural history of the vertebrates. Observation, identification, behavior, ecology and distribution of the vertebrates. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory/fieldwork; weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (4)

BIOL 475    Ichthyology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. The systematics, evolution, morphology, physiology, ecology and behavior of fishes. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory/fieldwork; weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (4)

BIOL 476    Herpetology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. The biology, structure, physiology, ecology, distribution, identification, collection, evolution and behavior of amphibians and reptiles. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory or fieldwork; weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (4)

BIOL 477    Advances in Biotechnology

Description: (Same as Chemistry 477)
Units: (3)

BIOL 478    Mammalogy

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. The systematics, evolution, morphology, physiology, ecology and behavior of mammals. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory/fieldwork; weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (4)

BIOL 479    Ornithology

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core. Anatomy, physiology, evolution, behavior, and ecology of birds. Laboratory and fieldwork in identification, anatomy, observational techniques and community composition. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory/fieldwork; weekend field trips may be required)
Units: (4)

BIOL 480    Advanced Topics in Undergraduate Biology

Description: Prerequisites: upper-division students majoring in biological science and consent of instructor. Current topics, updating of concepts, recent advances and unification of the principles of biology. May be repeated for credit.
Units: (1-3)

BIOL 480E    SCERP Proseminar

Description: Prerequisites: selection as a Southern California Ecosystems Research Program (SCERP) Fellow. Increase the experience and skills of SCERP Fellows in working on problems in environmental biology. Discussion of publications, development and presentation of SCERP research. Offered Credit/No Credit only. May be repeated for credit. Not available for graduate degree credit.
Units: (1)

BIOL 480M    MARC Proseminar

Description: Prerequisite: selection as MARC Fellow. Intended to increase the contact of MARC Fellows with minority scientists of national repute who will present seminars. Fellows will read and discuss relevant primary literature, attend the seminars, and meet with speakers before and after the seminars. May be repeated for credit. (Same as Chemistry and Psychology 480M)
Units: (1)

BIOL 482    Capstone Studies in Biology

Description: Prerequisite: consent of instructor; for Biological Science majors with senior standing. Individualized practical experience related to the study of biology or pursuit of a biology career that reflects paradigms of the discipline. Emphasis on application and integration of biological concepts and skills through library research, applied projects or community service activities. Not available for graduate degree credit.
Units: (2)

BIOL 495    Biological Internship

Description: Prerequisites: successful completion of 90 units, including all core requirements, and consent of instructor. Biological, ecological, and health-related fields. Ninety (90) hours of practical experience in student’s chosen field of interest with public or private agencies or businesses. May not be repeated for credit. (1 hour lecture/discussion, 6 hours laboratory work experience)
Units: (3)

BIOL 496    Biology Tutorials

Description: Prerequisites: completion of biology lower-division core and consent of instructor. Supervised experience in biological science teaching through tutoring or assisting in a laboratory or field class. No credit toward biological science major.
Units: (1-3)

BIOL 498    Senior Thesis

Description: Prerequisite: 6 units of Biology 499L (two units may be taken concurrently). Thesis committee must approve research plan at least two semesters prior to enrollment in this course. Requires preparation, presentation and defense of a formal thesis.
Units: (2)

BIOL 499L    Independent Laboratory Study

Description: Prerequisite: junior or senior standing with consent of instructor with whom the student wishes to pursue independent laboratory study in biology. May be repeated for credit.
Units: (1-3)

BIOL 500A    Professional Aspects of Biology

Description: Prerequisites: graduate standing and concurrent enrollment in Biology 500B. Discussions concerning research protocol, scientific methodology and communication techniques. Ethics and social responsibilities of professional biologists. (1 hour discussion)
Units: (1)

BIOL 500B    Professional Aspects of Biology

Description: Prerequisites: graduate standing and concurrent enrollment in Biology 500A. Individualized project work and experiences in scientific writing. Required of all students upon admission to the graduate program. (3 hours project work)
Units: (1)

BIOL 500C    Professional Aspects of Biology: Teaching Effectiveness

Description: Prerequisites/corequisites: graduate standing; must have received a Graduate Teaching Associate appointment. This course is designed to assist graduate students in becoming effective classroom teachers and understanding the scholarship of teaching in higher education. Graduate Teaching Associates will learn pedagogy and a variety of teaching alternatives while concurrently teaching in a laboratory/discussion setting.
Units: (2)

BIOL 505T    Seminar in Molecular, Cellular, Immunological and Physiological Biology

Description: Prerequisite: graduate standing  Selected advanced topics. May be repeated for credit.
Units: (3)

BIOL 517T    Seminar in Ecological and Organismic Biology

Description: Prerequisite: graduate standing. Selected advanced topics. May be repeated for credit.
Units: (3)

BIOL 520T    Seminar in Microbiology

Description: Prerequisite: graduate standing. Selected advanced topics. May be repeated for credit.
Units: (3)

BIOL 547    Advanced Ethnobotany

Description: Prerequisites: Graduate Standing. An ethnobotanical investigation of plants and human culture. Students will develop the skills to conduct original ethnobotanical research through voucher collections, plant identification, participant observation, interviews, experimentation and critique of scholarly research. (2 hours lecture. 3 hours laboratory, weekend field trips may be required).
Units: (3)

BIOL 580    Advanced Topics in Graduate Biology

Description: Prerequisites: graduate standing in biology and consent of instructor. Current research topics, experimental design and problem solving in biological systems. May be repeated for credit.
Units: (1-3)

BIOL 598    Thesis

Description: Open to graduate students with consent of instructor with whom the student is conducting graduate thesis research.
Units: (1-3)

BIOL 599    Independent Graduate Research

Description: Open to graduate students with consent of instructor with whom the student wishes to pursue independent study in biology.
Units: (1-3)

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