Types of Methods

When assessing performance outcomes, there is a wide range of methods to choose from. Below is a partial list. Please note that the categorizations are not mutually exclusive, i.e. a direct measure can also be a summative one. Remember to consider multiple methods when doing assessment.

Direct assessment methods:

- Knowledge tests
- Gap analysis (delivered services vs. actual requirements)
- Analysis of service usage

Indirect assessment methods:

- Participant surveys
- Alumni interviews
- Institutional research data (e.g. graduation rate)

Absolute (non-value-added) assessment methods:

- Standardized tests
- Performance status evaluation

Value-added assessment methods:

- Pre/Post-implementation utilization data
- Entrance/Exit Interviews

Formative assessment methods:

- Student weekly “check-in” reports
- Routine feedback received from online comments

Summative assessment methods:

- Student participation rate
- Faculty post-implementation focus group